Jennifer Taft

Date of Award


Document Type

Access Controlled Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Katherine M. Polasek, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

John Foley, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Peter McGinnis, Ph.D.


The purpose of this study was to discover whether differences in goal orientations (task-involved or ego-involved) exist between athletes who participate in team sports (e.g., basketball, hockey, volleyball) versus athletes who compete in individual sports (e.g., track and field, gymnastics, swimming) using the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ). In addition to the 12 items on the questionnaire, the participants recorded their sex, class standing, and age. The participants’ task involvement and ego-involvement scores were then analyzed using a Mann-Whitney test. It was found that males have higher ego-involvement scores than females, and team sport athletes had higher ego-involvement scores than individual sport athletes. There were no significant results pertaining to task-involvement scores based on sex or type of sport. The results of this study could provide insight toward how athletes’ individual psychologies affect their training and performance in competitions.