Date of Award


Document Type

Access Controlled Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Philip Buckenmeyer, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

JoEllen Bailey, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Katherine Polasek, Ph.D.


The purpose of this study was to examine the female and male bodybuilder’s identity, authenticity, and self-efficacy to obtain a better understanding of the self-concept of bodybuilders. Six-hundred and forty-eight surveys were made available for responses to this study. There was only a 0.0138% response. The median age range of the respondents was 30-39 years or 66.7% of the collected data. The sample consisted of respondents in which 66.7% were females and 33.3% males. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was designated as the comparison tool to evaluate differences between females and males in regard to self-esteem, self-efficacy, identity, and authenticity. Due to the low response rate, this comparison was not feasible. A qualitative review of the responses to the instruments revealed that participation in amateur bodybuilding is beneficial to one’s sense of “self,” and provides a clearer picture of the athlete’s self-concept. The importance of the role-identity of the bodybuilder positively and significantly influences the degree of authenticity felt by enacting the role of the bodybuilder. This serves as an important predictor of both the sense of efficacy felt by respondents and their sense of global self-esteem. Therefore, enacting a bodybuilder’s role provides meaning and fulfillment in the lives of these athletes which affect their feelings of competence and worth.