According to Ford (1981), outdoor education is "education in, about, and for the outdoors, implying a place, a topic, and a reason" (p. 14). Another working definition stated that outdoor education is "an experiential method of learning which takes place primarily through sensory involvement with the out-of-doors" (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 17). Priest and Gass also defined outdoor adventure programs as those. that use challenging experiences in the outdoors to promote personal and group development.
This research developed a better understanding of the linkages between outdoor adventure program (Outward Bound) experiences and outcomes using means-end analysis. Previously the means-end approach had been used to understand the outcomes of recreational participation in a ropes course program (Goldenberg 1997; Goldenberg, Klenosky, O'Leary, & Templin, 2000). To date, however, means-end analysis had not been used to examine the outcomes of broader outdoor program experiences, such as an Outward Bound course. According to Goldenberg et al. (2000), "additional research should be conducted to better understand this benefit and determine its role and generalizability in other ... adventure education settings" (p. 221-222).
Goldenberg, Marnie; McAvoy, Leo; Klensosky, David; and Holman, Tom
"Using Means-End Theory to Understand the Outdoor Adventure Experience,"
Research in Outdoor Education: Vol. 6, Article 8.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.cortland.edu/reseoutded/vol6/iss1/8