Research in Outdoor Education


This study attempts to validate predictors of optimal adventure within an on-site whitewater kayaking setting using a modification of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Based on the flow theory and Martin and Priest's (1986) Adventure Experience Paradigm, it was expected that measures of challenge-skill and risk-competence would be correlated and predict indicators of an optimal or peak adventure experience. Additionally, it was expected that differences would be found in the levels of perceived challenge and risk according to the difficulty of river stages.