Research in Outdoor Education


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of preplanned activities for effective processing, such as framing, debriefing, and transferring, on participant's depth of reflection and personal development. Adventure education programs based on experiential learning methods had spread slowly in Japanese outdoor education. However, recent research concluded that adventure programs without constructed activities for processing affected personal growth and development. Sugerman (2000) describes that some participants are able to reflect spontaneously to understand the meaning of. the experience. Other participants are not able to reflect spontaneously about the experience and are unable to extract meaning from the experience. Activities for effective processing support participants in organizing the meaning of their experience and becoming aware of new ideas from other members. Therefore, activities for effective processing are not essential in adventure education, but they promote more effects of adventure education.