Research in Outdoor Education


The purpose of this study was to identify the appropriate learning environment for reflective learning during a five-day wilderness adventure program by measuring participant's perception of "yutori", which was a similar concept to "leisure as a state of mind" using Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This study was conducted under the assumption that a learning environment where participants· perceive "yutori', is appropriate for spontaneous reflective learning, based on Nishino's studies that positive mood appears when perceiving "yutori" (Nishino & Chinen, 1998) and that perception of "yutori" relates to intrinsic motivation and freedom of choice for the behavior (Nishino, 1999).