Research in Outdoor Education


Continued interest in ·program evaluation· and improvement has led to calls for additional multivariate research, better measurement tools, and more complex research designs (Roberts & Yerkes, 2000; Ewert & Sibthorp, 2000). Through multivariate studies, researchers and practitioners can better discern which components of adventure programs have the greatest explanatory power regarding program outcomes, and which variables interact to facilitate or im­pede the learning of programmatic objectives. Recently, new instrumentation has been de­veloped to better address the needs of adventure education research and evaluation. The Life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) was de­signed to measure eight domains that are pos­sible outcomes for adventure programs and can also be used as a global index of Life Effective­ness (Neill, Marsh, & Richards, 1997).