Research in Outdoor Education


A growing body of empirical studies tests theories of developmental level in a recreation activity. Most are based on two prominent lei­sure theories: specialization (Bryan, 1977, 1979) and amateur/professionalism or "serious leisure" (Stebbins, 1979, 1992). A parallel group of stud­ies has focused on understanding the developmental levels of outdoor adventure (or risk) receation behavior, primarily using the Adventure Recreation Model (ARM) (Ewert, 1989) as a cornerstone. Both areas of the literature have sought to understand developmental levels in relation to other variables, including motivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation factors that are related to partici­pants' level of development in outdoor adven­ture recreation pursuits. This study will further test the ARM, add to the empirical body of knowledge in the areas of recreation specializa­tion and "serious leisure," and integrate these two parallel areas of study.