A growing body of empirical studies tests theories of developmental level in a recreation activity. Most are based on two prominent leisure theories: specialization (Bryan, 1977, 1979) and amateur/professionalism or "serious leisure" (Stebbins, 1979, 1992). A parallel group of studies has focused on understanding the developmental levels of outdoor adventure (or risk) receation behavior, primarily using the Adventure Recreation Model (ARM) (Ewert, 1989) as a cornerstone. Both areas of the literature have sought to understand developmental levels in relation to other variables, including motivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation factors that are related to participants' level of development in outdoor adventure recreation pursuits. This study will further test the ARM, add to the empirical body of knowledge in the areas of recreation specialization and "serious leisure," and integrate these two parallel areas of study.
Todd, Sharon L.; Anderson, Lynn; Young, Anderson B.; and Anderson, Dale
"The Relationship of Motivation Factors to Level of Development In Outdoor Adventure Recreationists,"
Research in Outdoor Education: Vol. 6, Article 16.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.cortland.edu/reseoutded/vol6/iss1/16