p. 32-39. 8p.
In the field of outdoor education, the belief that outdoor adventure programs have the ability to increase the participants' self-efficacy has long been. used to defend program existence and to give more credibility to the discipline (Berman & Berman, 1994; Cockrell, 1991; Ewert, 1989; Miles & Priest, 1990). Although outdoor adventure programs are based on the assumption that a positive effect on individuals' self-efficacy will carry over into the participants' lives after the course, there is little empirical research on this topic. In Hattie, Marsh, Neill, & Richards' (1997) meta-analysis of research on adventure programs, they point out the need to study the development of self-efficacy and to test specifically for efficacy (rather than self-concept in general or self-esteem). They suggest using alternative research designs to enhance the standard pre-test, post-test design so commonly used in our field. In this paper, we address the theoretical and methodological issues raised by Hattie et al. (1997), as well as the question of the transference of self-efficacy gained on an outdoor adventure course to individuals' everyday lives. The paper reports on a study of self-efficacy in adult Outward Bound participants, and the level of transference of self-efficacy gains to everyday life.
Paxton, Todd and McAvoy, Leo H.
"Self-Efficacy and Adventure Programs: Transferring Outcomes to Everyday Life,"
Research in Outdoor Education: Vol. 4, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.cortland.edu/reseoutded/vol4/iss1/5