Research in Outdoor Education




A growing trend in environmental research is the quantification of the human-nature relationship. This review of human-nature psychometric instruments should be used as a reference for individuals seeking to incorporate these tools into their outdoor and environmental education research. Extensive literature review and autoethnographic techniques were employed to identify and evaluate thirty-four instruments. Instruments were evaluated on structure, ease of use, and concepts represented. Diversity exists amongst the instruments in terms of length, concepts reflected, and structure. The majority of tools reflect environmental attitudes/views (16) or relationship/connection with nature (13). Fewer instruments reflect concern, identity, or environmental behavior. Twenty-eight instruments are deemed easy to use, based on time required to complete and ease of scoring. A timeline outlining the development of the instruments is presented and conclusions and recommendations from original and comparative studies are summarized.