Research in Outdoor Education




While widely used in research connected with outdoor education, self-report data can be subject to a number of issues related to validity and generalizability. This paper argues that biomarkers present another type of evidence that is equally or even more rigorous than self-report data. The paper describes several types of biomarkers that are commonly measured in other disciplines along with how data from those biomarkers are collected. Data from a recent study using two biomarkers commonly used for measuring stress is presented as an example of how the use of biomarkers can broaden the body of evidence being developed in outdoor education.