Research in Outdoor Education




Outdoor educator teaching self-efficacy beliefs are important to the process of teaching in the outdoors. Errors in these self-beliefs, which are one's judgments of ability to successfully perform necessary teaching tasks, carry consequences for student learning and safety in outdoor contexts. This paper presents two studies conducted to develop a teaching outdoor education self-efficacy scale (TOE-SES). In Study 1, data were collected from 303 participants in collegiate outdoor programs. Exploratory Factor Analysis reduced a 49-item pool to a 23-item scale comprised of 5 subscales. In Study 2, data were collected from 200 National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) instructor and outdoor educator course participants. Confirmatory Factor Analysis results indicated an acceptable fit for a 22-item, 5-factor scale with strong subscale internal consistencies.